Types of maps:
- World map
- Relief map
- Climatic map
- Political map
- Street map
- Weather map
- Thematic map
- Physical map
Some Modern maps:
- Censorship maps
- Maps symbols of Japanese
- Google maps
- Online map
- Ireland and UK maps
- United States map
- Engels maps
- Intermap Technologies
- Maps of Ordinance Survey
Maps give us details about the climate profile, physical characteristics, geographic location, soil structure, longitude and latitude, etc. it represent the world in a three dimensional terms giving you the chance to look closely and hold which corresponds to the perfectly to the Earth’s surface. In general, it help us see the picture. Because of maps, people learned to express real world in a creative way.
In order to communicate three-dimensional information effectively, the features like cities, lakes, and rivers must to be labeled. Cartographers developed way for placing names even the deepest of maps. Name placement or text placement ca be mathematically complex as labels and density of the map increases. Meaning, the name placement is really time-consuming that is why cartographers and users developed a placement label that is automatic to finish this process.
The different features presented in the map are characterized by symbols or conventional signs. For an instance, the colors may be used to specify roads classification. Those signs usually clarified in the map margin or on separate sheet.
Some cartographers like better to create map cover almost the whole screen. These cartographers place the information in a ‘blank’ region ‘within’ the map- map legend, title, cartouche, bar scale, compass rose, etc. Some maps are has a ‘sub-maps’ which are smaller in otherwise blank regions. Sometimes, like large maps, this maps use same scale.
In the last quarter of 20th century, all the indispensable tool use by the cartographer are already in the computer. The functionality of the maps became advance because of the technology. Having the information like distribution wildlife, rainfall level or the integrated data for demography provides a good decision making and efficient analysis. During pre-electronic age, like data superimposition that is led by Dr. John Snow identify the specific location of the cholera outbreak.
Computerized maps are available for commercial purposes, letting the handlers to zoom in or out. In-car satellite system for global navigations are maps that are computerized that has advice facilities and route planning which helps monitor the position of the users by the help of the satellites. Based from the point of view of the computer scientist, zooming entails one or combination of:
- Replacing a map with a more another one that is more detailed
- Enlarging the identical map without the need of enlarging pixels resulting for showing a more detailed through removing the less information than to the fewer detailed versions.
- Enlarging the identical map with enlarged pixels; there is no additional information presented but depending on one’s vision, there more information can be discover.
Large areas or world maps are sometimes either physical or political. The most vital purpose of political maps is for showing territorial boarders; for showing geographical features like mountains, land use or soil type including infrastructures like railroads, roads and buildings. Maps of topography show the relief and elevations with shading or contour lines. Maps for geography show not just the surface in physical bur also the features of the fundamental fault lines, rocks and the structure of the subsurface. Maps that represent the Earth’s surface still use the projection, it translate the three dimensions of geoid in real surface into a picture that is two-dimensional. The well-known projection of the world is Mercator projection which are designed in a nautical chart form. Aeronautical charts that is based on ‘Lambert conformal conic projection is what our pilots use. The sphere and the cone intersects at parallels one or two which are the standard lines. It permits pilots to design a route with great-circle approximation on two-dimensional chart.
- Gnomonic and Azimuthal map projections used in designing air routes because of its ability to symbolize circles as lines.
- Bird’s eye projection emphasized globally planned fronts.
The maps’ orientation refers to the relationship of the directions indicated in the map and its reality’s matching compass directions. The term ‘orient’ comes from the Latin word oriens which mean East. During Middle Ages most maps, O and T maps were represented with East placed to the top. Nowadays, most map are drawn with North at the top. There are some maps which are not oriented resulting for not placing the North at the top:
- Non-Western maps are oriented in different ways. The labels are oriented which is hard to read unless you put above the head the imperial palace.
- European O and T maps where Jerusalem is at the center and having East at its top.
- Channel and route maps bordering sea are usually conventional oriented, placing sea at the uppermost.
- Polar maps of Antarctic or Arctic regions
- Reversed maps
- Buckminster Fuller’s Dymaxion maps
- GIS maps
Map-making or cartography is the practice and study of crafting Earth’s representation in a flat surface. Cartographer refers to the person who are skilled in making maps.
Road maps are todays’ widely used map and form navigational subset maps that include nautical and aeronautical charts, network railroad maps, and bicycling and hiking maps. Talking about quantity, the biggest number of drawn sheets of map is made up through local surveys, municipalities, and providers of emergency services, utilities, tax assessors and much more local agencies. Most projects for national surveying are carried by military.
Map is a symbolic depiction which highlights the relationship between the elements of space like regions, object, and themes.
Most maps are two dimensional, approximately an accurate representation of a space that is three-dimensional while some are interactive or dynamic. Although commonly used for depicting geography, maps are used to represent space, image or real without regard to scale or context like DNA mapping, brain mapping and extraterrestrial mapping. The earliest maps that are known are the heavens territorial geographic maps that exist in the ancient times and have long tradition.